Unified opinion about is it worth forming the crown of the bush sweet pepper, still did not work out. Many summer residents still believe that the trouble with seedlings was quite enough for them, now let the plants grow on their own.
What's behind them is enough you still have to look after... In some cases, this is true, especially when it comes to varieties of undersized.
They have a great advantage for working gardeners who cannot come to their plots during the week. The so-called "Sunday" amateur gardeners visit their plots on weekends, water them and limited to duty care for plants. The formation of peppers in the greenhouse, as such, is not of interest to them.
What is it for?
With a serious approach to the cultivation of different varieties of sweet peppers (about the features of growing bell peppers in a greenhouse, read the link), the question arises of increasing its yield. Pepper in a greenhouse is a bush culture, and the correct formation of a bush significantly affects on the ability to bear fruit and fruit ripening rate.
In areas of the middle lane, where summers are shorter and cooler, peppers have to be grown mostly in greenhouses. Under these conditions, artificial limitation of the appearance of new ovaries allows for the maturation of those that already exist.
Moreover, it is possible to purposefully influence plants in order to direct their efforts either to increase the number of fruits, or to enlarge them. Usually, of course, interest in the quality of the crop wins. Farmers and Experienced gardeners do not neglect this opportunityespecially when it comes to tall varieties.
If, in addition to peppers, you have cucumbers planted in a greenhouse, then you can find out about the formation of their play, as well as the compatibility of growing with peppers, on our website.
Meaning for different varieties
Tall varieties of peppers cannot be grown without forming a crown of a bush and tying each branch. Medium-sized varieties can be satisfied by removing the lower shoots and barren twigs.
This plant gets rid of unproductive costs for their maintenance, as well as improving the illumination and ventilation of all elements of the bush.
If the variety is undersized, and even more so dwarf, then it is not worth forming at all. Unless only in the case of too dense planting of seedlings. it entails increased foliage density, is fraught with plant diseases and slowing down of their development. In this case, willy-nilly, you will have to deal with the formation of the crown of the bushes, otherwise the harvest will be unimportant.
How to form a bush correctly?
The yield of peppers grown in a greenhouse directly depends on how well the bushes are formed. For different varieties apply various formation options... Also, the nature of the formation depends on whether the greenhouse is heated or not.
Bushes growing in open ground or in an unheated greenhouse can grow up to 60 cm. If the greenhouse is heated, the bushes will be taller and the fruits can be grown larger.
Pepper bush formation includes into themselves such stages:
- determination of the correct planting scheme;
- removal of the crown bud, one or more;
- pinching, or removing excess shoots;
- getting rid of the plant from excess leaves and sterile shoots;
- pinching of skeletal branches.
Attention: operations within the framework of the formation of pepper bushes are only permissible for completely healthy plants... Working with pruners or scissors without disinfecting them after each plant, you can, without noticing it, transfer the disease from a diseased plant to healthy ones.
Let's consider the stages of the formation of a bush in more detail.
Pepper planting scheme
Usually on a package of pepper seeds there is a recommendation regarding the planting scheme for this variety. It is usually determined based on the size to which the bush can grow.
How to distribute the shoots when planting in a greenhouse, you need to think in advance. If the variety is undersized, then with an optimal planting scheme, it will not have to be pinned. But a tall variety will not avoid this procedure in any case.
Moreover, the features pinching straight depend from what what is the scheme for the plants... As a matter of fact, each greenhouse has its own personality, so you need to look for the optimal planting scheme for your greenhouse. You have to experiment a little, but it's worth it.
Removing the crown bud
The crown bud (or crown flower) is called the flower ovaries that form in the first fork on the main stem - the stem of the pepper. Pepper grows as one stem first, up to about 15-20 cm, it depends on the variety. It then starts branching and the crown bud is immediately removed to ensure proper branching. This provides improved nutrition for the ovaries located above the fork.
The purpose of the operation is to redistribute juices and nutrients in order to improve the quality of fruiting. Pepper, as one of the crops most commonly grown in greenhouses, needs careful shaping of the bush... And pinching is a tool for such a formation.
You need to start using this tool early so that the bush forms the way you want. Grasshopping consists in the removal of lateral shoots that appear during the growth of the stem.
Wherein flowers are also removedwho are interpreted as sterile, and extra leaves... Why waste plant strength and nutrients? So they remove everything unnecessary, following the principle of expediency.
This is the order in which it is done. First, as already mentioned, the stem appears. 2-3 shoots are left on it, the strongest, of those that are released from the fork with the crown bud. These are shoots of the 1st order. They are called skeletal, because they really play the role of the skeleton of the entire bush as a whole.
For all other shoots, the top is cut off, which is the point of growth. Usually at this time there are already 10-12 leaves on the bush.
Skeletal twigs are subject to the same branching ability. At the branching point, the so-called "fork", a bud is also formed at one time. With the fork, we act according to the same principle: we leave a strong and healthy shoot, we pinch the weak ones.
Cut off the shoot, stepping back up from the first leaf and flower bud. The bud usually stays on the main stem. Total it is recommended to leave 15-25 ovaries on one bush, then large fruits will turn out from them.
When removing the shoot, it is necessary to leave one leaf, since the nutrition of the ovary located under it depends on it.
Each subsequent division is subjected to a similar treatment: the strongest shoot is left, and the rest are removed after the first leaf. The bush should have the following structure:
Figure 1 - Scheme of the structure of a pepper bush grown in a greenhouse.
1 - main stem, or stem;
2 - shoots of the 1st order;
3 - shoots of the 2nd order;
4 - skeletal branches
Removal of excess leaves and sterile shoots
On the main stem, below the bifurcation, unnecessary shoots may appear and leaves. They must be removed immediately, and for this it is necessary to inspect the pepper bushes more often. It is also necessary to remove the leaves that shade the light of the ovaries and consume the juices wasted.
If there is little light, then the fruits may well not set at all, even if flowering occurred and was abundant. therefore extra leaves it is necessary decisively cut with an unwavering hand.
Unhealthy and damaged leaves should also be removed immediately. At the same time, it does not matter at all where exactly they grew up. Sometimes at the cost of timely removal of diseased leaves manages to save the whole bush.
When the fruits on the first cluster reach the level of technical ripeness, the leaves on the stem of the pepper are cut off. Similarly, when the fruits on the second cluster reach the same level of maturity, the leaves growing under it are cut off.
And so on, according to the same scheme: we remove the leaves under the fruits. You just need to remember that the last such removal is done no later than a month and a half until the planned completion of harvesting. We must finally leave the plant alone and let it run at full strength in the season finale.
Attention: in no case should all the leaves be removed at once, this will shock the plant. You can cut off 2 sheets at a time, no more, so that a fatal outcome does not happen.
Pinching skeletal branches
Having taken care of the formation of the proper amount of fruits on the bush, it is necessary to provide conditions for their ripening. This requires stop the process of further formation of ovaries, then the powers of the plant will not be diffused.
In pursuit of these goals, we make the last pinching one and a half months before the expected end of the season: cut off the tops of all skeletal branches... By eliminating the points of growth, it is possible to achieve the concentration of the efforts of the bush on the maintenance of the existing fruits.
Just at this time, a massive formation of peppers in the greenhouse takes place, and the measures taken allow the fruits to ripen much faster, to turn out ripe, with excellent taste.
Having tried to grow bell peppers in his greenhouse, the savvy gardener will understand that the issue of forming a bush should not be neglected... How this task is solved depends on what kind of harvest he will receive. Either plentiful, with selective and sweet fruits, or unimportant, with a large number of small fruits that do not shine either in appearance or taste.